Does Social Security award partial disability or short-term disability programs?

No.  Other government programs, such as the Veteran’s Affairs or Worker’s Compensation, handle disability on a percentage basis.  Social Security does not do this.  You will either be found disabled or not disabled.  Many private insurers offer short-term disability, however Social Security does not make that distinction.  To qualify for Social Security disability, your impairment must last at least 12 months.